By E. Sjöström (auth.), Prof. Dr. Eero Sjöström, Prof. Dr. Raimo Alén (eds.)
In its broadest feel, and in response to the conventional perception, wooden chemistry is a complete self-discipline, starting from basic stories to useful functions. The manifold parts, situated in numerous morphological areas within the wooden, ends up in an severe complexity of wooden chemistry. Ever extra refined endeavors desiring basic reviews and complex analytical tools are helpful for you to delve deeper into quite a few difficulties in pulping and papermaking. progressively, new, more suitable ana lytical tools, initially constructed for study reasons, are at the moment exchanging a few of the previous "routine" equipment in sensible purposes. as a result of the expanse of the topic, an try and write a booklet of this measurement approximately analytical equipment turns out, possibly, too formidable. after all, an entire publication sequence of numerous volumes will be essential to disguise this subject thoroughly. in spite of the fact that, there's certainly a necessity for a extra condensed presentation which doesn't pass into experimental information, yet is restricted to the fundamental rules of the analytical tools and illustrates their applica tions. The emphasis is on extra complicated and power equipment, and partic ularly on these in accordance with sorts of spectroscopy and chromatography.
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Additional info for Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry, Pulping, and Papermaking
However, the fiber structure is more or less damaged, and the pulps are usually characterized by fiber fractionation, followed by analysis of the fractions. The production processes of chemimechanical pulps (CMP) normally involve a pretreatment of the wood chips with alkaline solutions of sodium sulfite at elevated temperatures. Chemithermomechanical pulps (CTMP) belong to this category. The yield is somewhat lower than for TMP, but the fibers are less damaged. In the pretreatment stage, sulfonic acid groups are introduced into the lignin.
4). Highly purified ray cell fractions can be obtained by manual separation (Fig. 3). A dilute fraction of fines, enriched with ray cells, is poured onto a watch glass which is then rotated slowly. The ray cells are gradually concentrated in the middle of the glass, whereas the debris remains at the peri phery. This procedure should preferably be carried out under a stereo microscope at low magnification and repeated until a pure fraction is obtained (Westermark 1985). Ray cells from chemical pulps or holocellulose samples can be isolated simply by taking a fraction that has passed a 50-fJ,m screen but is retained on a 20-flm screen (Perila 1961; Hoffmann and Timell 1972; Westermark and Capretti 1988).
Another general reaction of carbohydrates is their oxidation by periodate. The oxidation varies depending on the configuration of free 1,2diols. Thus, cis-1,2-diols begin to react at room temperature, whereas trans1,2-diols require heating at higher temperatures (Fig. 7). Because both structures consume equal amounts of periodate, its consumption is related to the total carbohydrate concentration of the sample. The concentration of periodate is conveniently followed by its strong UV absorption at 220 nm.
Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry, Pulping, and Papermaking by E. Sjöström (auth.), Prof. Dr. Eero Sjöström, Prof. Dr. Raimo Alén (eds.)