By David S. Betts
Betts offers a concise creation to the experimental technicalities of low and ultralow temperature physics examine. He has made vast use of diagrams as aids to realizing, and refers the reader to the pro literature once the extent of the textual content is excessive adequate. themes coated contain all features of low temperature know-how, starting with an creation to the thermodynamic ideas of refrigeration and thermometry. The textual content additionally covers the homes of fluid 3He/4He combos, and all of the technique of attaining low temperatures, together with dilution and Pomeranchuk refrigeration and adiabatic nuclear demagnetization.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Millikelvin Technology
1966)) to be a practical proposition. Several sources have provided the material for this chapter, and may be consulted by the reader wishing to pursue the matter in great depth. These sources importantly include two research monographs by Lounasmaa (1974) and by Betts (1976), both of which need to be updated, a much-used conference review article by Frossati (1978) and its sequel by Vermeulen and Frossati (1987), and a privately-circulated manual by Sagan (1981). There are also useful articles by Wheatley et al (1968) and (1971), Niinikoski (1976), Frossati et al (1977), Lounasmaa (1979) and Bradley et al (1982).
1 Preamble Pomeranchuk cooling has few advantages over modern dilution refrigerators (see Chapter 3) or demagnetisation stages (see Chapter 5) but was important in the decade 1965-75 when dilution refrigerators and superconducting magnets were less sophisticated than they are today. It can cool to about 1 mK and it is very insensitive to applied magnetic fields. 1. The melting curve of 3He showing the unusual minimum. The broken line represents data due to Grilly (1971). A. Busch (1982); see also Greywall (1985).
Advantages of a simpler construction. Two alternative approaches have been put into practice. In the first (see de Waele et al (1976)) 3He is circulated as before but there are several mixing chambers. Temperatures of about 3 mK have been reported. In the second, known as the Leiden refrigerator, 4He is circulated rather than 3He. 4 mK. 12. Superfluid 4He is circulated through a superleak into the mixing chamber. The device has a counterflow tube heat exchanger in which the phase-separated descending cold mixture and the ascending hot concentrated mixture exchange heat via direct contact with each other.
An Introduction to Millikelvin Technology by David S. Betts