By Carlo C. DiClemente
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Extra resources for Addiction and change : how addictions develop and addicted people recover
Cognitive and experiential processes are more important in negotiating passage through the earlier stages of Precontemplation and Contemplation. Behavioral processes of 36 UNDERSTANDING ADDICTIONS IN TERMS OF CHANGE change are more important in the Preparation, Action, and Maintenance stages of change (DiClemente & Prochaska, 1998). As we learn more and more about the process of human behavior change, it appears that change-process activity matched to movement through the stages produces more successful change (Perz, DiClemente, & Carbonari, 1996).
Stimulus generalization or control: Creating, altering, or avoiding cues/stimuli that trigger or encourage a particular behavior 3. Conditioning or counterconditioning: Making new connections between cues and a behavior or substituting new, competing behaviors and activities in response to cues for the “old” behaviors 4. Reinforcement management: Identifying and manipulating the positive and negative reinforcers for current or new behaviors. Creating rewards for new behaviors while extinguishing (eliminating reinforcements) for current behavior.
This is the task of the Maintenance stage of change. During this stage the new behavior pattern becomes automatic, requiring little thought or effort to sustain it. , 1986). However, during maintenance there is still an ever-present danger of reverting to the old pattern. In fact, the new behavior becomes fully maintained only when there is little or no energy or effort needed to continue it and the individual can terminate the cycle of change (Prochaska, Norcross, & DiClemente, 1994). The new behavior then becomes the status quo, and once again there is little or no desire or intention to change, whether that be going 30 UNDERSTANDING ADDICTIONS IN TERMS OF CHANGE back to the former pattern or moving onto another new pattern.
Addiction and change : how addictions develop and addicted people recover by Carlo C. DiClemente